The use of Steiner fruit fly traps modified with three types of pheromones: methylugenol, cuelure and trimedlure, serves as an early detection system. The BAF and the Extension Department of the Ministry of Primary Industry (MPI) set traps in all ports of entry (airports and wharf) and other high-risk areas where exotic (foreign) species of fruit flies are most likely to be discovered in the country. These traps are regularly evacuated and samples are identified and recorded. The two economically important fruit flies, B. kirki and B. obscura, which are present only in Rotuma, pose a considerable threat to Fiji`s fruits and vegetables, as well as to Fiji`s fresh produce exports. The migration of B. kirki can jeopardize the BQA, with both countries also hindering exports. As a result, BAF has imposed an internal biosecurity ban on the shipment of all fruit to and from Rotuma. BAF would like to advise travellers to and from Rotuma that it is forbidden to bring Rotuma fruit into Fiji. The migration of B. kirki to Fiji is likely to pose a significant threat to Fiji`s fruits and vegetables and will also affect Fiji`s fresh produce exports.
Fiji has a bilateral quarantine agreement (BQA) with New Zealand and Australia for the export of fresh produce to these countries. The BQA ensures that a structured system is put in place to minimize the risk of pests and diseases, in particular fruit flies entering these countries. Fruit flies are a major biosecurity problem, as they harm fruits and vegetables, hampering production and reducing exports. Fiji has seven species of fruit flies, including Bactrocera passiflorae, a mild form of B. passiflorae, B. xanthodes, B. distincta. B.
gnetum, B. kirki and B. obscura. Two of these species B. Kirki and B. obscura are only on the island of Rotuma. Fiji has a bilateral quarantine agreement (BQA) with New Zealand and Australia for the export of certain raw materials. Biosecurity officials at their respective stations ensure that BQA requirements are met in order to maintain unfettered exports to these two countries. Products that do not fall under the BQA are exported to all countries and labelled as non-BQA. Those who violate this biosecurity regulation are responsible for criminal prosecution and punishment. The adult female lays her egg by making a puncture on the fruit with a needle like a structure at the end of the abdomen, called ovipositor, while introducing bacteria into the fruit.
In about two days, the egg slips in, and the larvae remain in the fruit during the larval stage. Bacteria degrade fruits and provide food for larvae or maggots that come out of eggs. The damage caused by fruit flies becomes evident after 3 days. The fruit tissue disintegrates and the black spots merge on the surface of the fruit. In 5-7 days, the symptoms of fruit fly lesions due to the decomposition of the fruit are obvious. Rotten fruits fall to the ground, larvae leave the fruit and reappear in the ground and appear as adult flies. The entire life cycle of the fruit fly lasts 18-20 days. The export team of the Biosecurity Authority of Fiji (BAF) carries out activities related to export and market access. These include facilitating markets for existing export products; plants and plant products, forest products, animals and animal products, products and other regulated objects.
The export team also monitors the implementation of new transport routes, confirms pest status through monitoring activities and verifies the occurrence and status of established pests through rigorous investigations and monitoring of domestic movement. . . .